Assistive Technology Outcomes Profile for Mobility (ATOP/M)–Item Pool Development

Jeffrey W. Jutai, PhD1 , Louise Demers, PhD2 , Frank DeRuyter, PhD3 , Marcia Finlayson, PhD4 , Marcus J. Fuhrer, PhD5 , Joy Hammel, PhD4 , and James Lenker, PhD6

1 Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa, 2 Research Center, Institut universitaire de gériatrie de Montréal, 3 Division of Speech Pathology & Audiology, Duke University Medical Center, 4 Departments of Occupational Therapy & Disability and Human Development, University of Illinois at Chicago, 5 National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, 6 Department of Rehabilitation Science, University at Buffalo, State University of New York,


A comprehensive item pool was created as a foundational step in developing a new outcomes instrument, the Assistive Technology Outcomes Profile for Mobility (ATOP/M), to evaluate the impact of assistive technology devices (ATDs) for adults with mobility disabilities. Item pool development included extensive review of extant instruments (published, unpublished, and under development) and the conduct of focus groups. Focus groups took place in London and Chicago and included people with disabilities, caregivers and providers (n=64). A pool of candidate items for the ATOP/M was created initially using the PROMIS and CPI. Items were mapped to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Gaps in content were identified. Items were added from 14 instruments and focus group data. Unique themes that were not covered in extant instruments and that were identified from the focus groups related to disability self-management and navigation of the healthcare system. A comprehensive pool of items covering activity and participation was created which will undergo item calibration. The result will be a conceptually grounded instrument for measuring the outcomes of mobility device use.


mobility, assistive technology, outcomes, focus group, item bank


The authors are members of or collaborators with CATOR ( This study was funded by the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (NIDRR) Grant #H133A060062.


Jeffrey W. Jutai, PhD, CPsych
Faculty of Health Sciences
Bachelor of Health Sciences Program
University of Ottawa
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